NASAL CREASES PADA PENDERITA ALERGI (bercak garis melintang di hidung)
SALAM ALERGI, gerakan seperti memberi salam dilakukan dengan menggerakkan salah satu tangan seperti mengusap hidung dari bawah ke atas
Menggosok hidung atau mata karena gatal
RABBIT NOSE : gerakan hidung yang berulang-ulang pada penderita alergi hidung seperti gerakan hidung kelinci, hal ini terjadi karena rasa gatal pada hidung
Sinus X-ray for sinusitis
X-rays are a form of radiation, like light or radio waves, that can be focused into a beam, much like a flashlight beam. Unlike a beam of light, however, X-rays can pass through most objects, including the human body. When X-rays strike a piece of photographic film, they produce a picture. Dense tissues in the body, such as bones, block (absorb) many of the X-rays and appear white on an X-ray picture. Less dense tissues, such as muscles and organs, block fewer of the X-rays (more of the X-rays pass through) and appear in shades of gray. Space that contains no tissue appears black on an X-ray picture.
1. An x-ray examination is the key to diagnosing sinus problems, such as sinusitis, tumor, or fracture.
- It is a fast, safe, reliable, and economic way to assess abnormalities in sinuses.
- When a sinus X-ray is taken, radiation is momentarily irradiated on the face. X-rays pass through the face to produce an image on film. Structures like bone that are dense and have a high atomic number absorb a lot of X-rays, so less X-rays reach the film and appear white. Fluid, fat, and tumor absorb less X-rays than bone, and appear darker on film. Air in the sinus cavities, which has a low atomic number and density, appears black because most X-rays pass through without being absorbed.
- In the case of sinusitis, the sinuses are filled with inflammatory fluid. It can be detected using X-ray as grayish haziness inside the air-filled black sinuses that are confined in the white bones.
- In spite of the remarkable progress of CT scan or MRI, sinus X-rays continue to provide definitive diagnostic information in many clinical situations, while playing an important role as a simple screening tool in others.
- Conventional sinus X-rays consist of three views:
- Waters view — used to visualize maxillary sinuses
- Caldwell view — used to visualize frontal and ethmoid sinuses
- Lateral view
- Additional views:
- Rheese view
To evaluate symptoms of possible sinusitis, X-rays of the sinuses may be taken from several directions.
An X-ray of the sinuses may sometimes be used to confirm a suspected diagnosis of acute sinusitis.
An X-ray of the sinuses was formerly the standard method of diagnosing acute sinusitis in the sinuses behind the cheeks (maxillary sinuses) or behind the eyebrows (frontal sinuses). Because a computed tomography (CT) scan shows a much clearer picture of the sinuses and other structures, the use of standard X-rays has declined.
However, standard X-rays are commonly used to help distinguish uncomplicated sinusitis from other problems that may cause similar symptoms, such as problems with the jaw joint, dental infections, or headache. The findings are often not reliable, though, so they should be evaluated with caution.
If complications of sinusitis develop or if it becomes necessary to see more of the sinuses or bones that surround them, a CT scan may be needed.
Normal findings on an X-ray of the sinuses will show:
- Normal bone structure.
- No evidence of fluid in the sinuses.
- No thickening of the mucous membrane.
Standard X-rays are fairly good at showing the frontal and maxillary sinuses (those in the cheek and forehead). They do not show the ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses as well. See an illustration of the location of the facial sinuses.
Abnormal findings on an X-ray of the sinuses may show evidence of fluid in the sinus or a thickened mucous membrane. This is strong evidence of a sinus infection.
Fiberoptic assessment of nose, sinuses and back of throat (naso-endoscopy)
Using an Olympus ENF Type V2 fiberoptic to assess nose, sinuses and back of the throat (right down to vocal cords). This has a fine flexible tip that passes easily along the nose and throat after local anaesthetic is instilled. The fiberscope shows colour images of nose and sinus problems and any obstructions at the back of throat (as can happen in children with large adenoids and/or tonsils). Patients can now have an instant photographic record of what the problem is and can then compare the ‘after’ image when a treatment strategy is implemented. The procedure is not that uncomfortable and doesn’t take very long (usually around 5 minutes) to complete. Allowing for the local anaesthetic to take effect you will be in the office for between 30 – 60 minutes. Before this procedure you will be given a leaflet that explains what to expect and you will be asked to sign a consent form. If you have a bad head cold or very sore throat a decision may be made to defer the test until another day.
The results of naso-endoscopy are almost always available immediately, complete with a supporting digital image.
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