Increased IgG 3:4 ratios in adolescent antisocial females: Evidence of Th1/Th2 imbalance ?
Kathleen Pajer, , a, Bruce Rabinb and William Gardnerc
a Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3811 O’Hara St. Suite 430, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
b Departments of Pathology and Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 5725 Children’s Hospital Main Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
c Departments of Medicine and Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, E-824 MUH, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Received 16 April 2001. Available online 4 December 2002.
Female antisocial behavior in adolescence and late childhood has been associated with low basal cortisol levels. Because low cortisol has also been correlated with T helper cell Type 1 (Th1) predominance and suppression of T helper cell Type 2 (Th2), we investigated whether adolescent antisocial girls demonstrated this immunologic profile. Using plasma levels of IgG3 and IgG4 as markers for Th1 and Th2 activity, we studied IgG 3:4 ratios in 16-year-old girls with conduct disorder (CD) (n=42) or no psychiatric disorder (normal controls (NC)) (n=35). The mean IgG 3:4 ratio was higher in the CD group; this relationship remained significant after controlling for the effects of other variables. These data indicate that immunologic abnormalities are present in adolescent antisocial girls. Future studies should measure cytokine levels and investigate the clinical implications of these findings.
Author Keywords: Female antisocial behavior; Conduct Disorder; IgG 3; IgG 4; IgG Isotypes; Cortisol; Th1; Th2
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